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  • Coping with Anxiety

    Coping Skills For Coping With Anxiety

    An anxiety induced panic attack can have an intense influence on someone’s life. Everyday situations can be developing into horrifying and dreadful events. When panic attacks occur during the night, your sleep pattern becomes extremely interrupted. Continuous and reoccurring attacks will put additional tension into an already tense relationship, as well as, prevent you from wanting to be involved with any family outings.

    The persistent diversion from a possible occurring attack will divert your thoughts from the tasks as hand, and often interfere with employment and/or school. The fear of reliving a discomforting and horrific panic attack may over time prevent you form performing required duties for fear of reliving the embarrassment.

    Several factors play a role in panic and anxiety attacks. Some are easy daily living skills such as the use of drugs or alcohol, and unhealthy diet. An anxiety attack however may be due to an environmental factor, your lack of healthy current and previous surroundings and it may something an ancestor has passed down through an inheritance.

    Whatever the initial cause is, there is hope and help for coping with anxiety. There are several techniques that are quite efficient and will help you manage until you are able to seek outside help. One of the most beneficial things one can do while experiencing an anxiety/panic attack is to talk through it, talk yourself or enlist a family member to talk to you. Trusting is difficult for those trying to hide their attacks, it is essentially important for you to gain the trust of someone that will give you the encouragement you need to seek help.

    Though an anxiety attack may be feeling embarrassing at the time of occurrence, it is necessary to remember you are not the only one going through this. Anxiety and/or panic attacks are not a dirty little secret you have to hide from your friends and family. It is a medical condition. If you had cancer would you be embarrassed to tell anyone? The same concept applies to a mental health disorder; it is still an illness, regardless of the term or shame one might feel. In order to overcome your anxiety it is necessary for you to tell someone. If you are not comfortable discussing your symptoms with family members, go online and print out effective coping skills that you can use until you are able to make an appointment with a physician.

  • Drug Addiction

    According to Webster’s New World™ Medical Dictionary, 3rd Edition, Addiction is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and abuse and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain. Addiction is the same irrespective of whether the drug is alcohol, amphetamines, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, or nicotine. Every addictive substance induces pleasant states or relieves distress. Continue use of addictive substances induces adaptive changes in the brain that lead to tolerance, physical dependence, uncontrollable craving and, all too often, relapse. Dependence is at such a point that stopping is very difficult and causes severe physical and mental damage from withdrawal (WILLIAM C. SHIEL JR., 2008).
    Over the past two decades, many researchers have identified subgroups of alcohol and drug user based in similarities like drinking style (Kevin M. King, 2009), behavior problems, etiology, outcome, and other clinically significant phenomena; making the most predominant the antisocial, primarily neurotic, mixed neurotic and antisocial, and psychotic (Malow, 1989). But the antisocial features have been the most prominent between all the subtypes; especially on drug user. This literature will review these thru the following questions:
    1. How addiction impact family and social relationships?
    2. Do alcohol and drug addictions have relationship with crime?
    3. What is the economic cost related to alcohol and drug addiction?

    How addiction impact family and social relationships?
    Drug and alcohol abuse is a large problem for adults in our world today. It is destructive, not just in terms of its effect on the addict but for the suffering it inflicts on the loved ones and family (Sadava, 1987). Though the addict may have no conscious intention of harming his companions and relatives, his self-destructive actions are a source of anguish for anyone with genuine affection for him/her. One of the most common situations is when the partner tries to hide the addict’s behavior from family member, co-workers, employer or general public. This type of behavior is known as Co dependence (Malow, 1989). A codependent partner will make up excuses for the addict’s work absences or a car accident; even will tries to clean up any legal messes resulting from the addict’s behavior; allowing the addict to continue his destructive path without dealing with its consequences. Consequences that can go from continuous fights to elevated levels of domestic violence. Most the time related to financial hardships, causes by the addict’s need to buy drugs, as well as from his inability to find consistent employment.
    Families impacted by addiction are more likely to experience divorce (Andrew k. Littlefield, 2010). When all methods of dealing with the addiction have failed, partners will see no other recourse but to separate. Unfortunately the children end up been the most affected, not only they are forced to participate in parental fights but also, eventually they have to deal with the parent’s separation. The effects that a parent’s addiction environment will inflict on their children may hunt the child forever.
    Alcohol and Drug addiction also have effects on peer relationships (Zaldívar, 2009). Often addiction causes that the addict’s disapproving friends distance themselves. Alternately, the addict tries to find new friends that share or endorse his addictive habits.
    Living with or loving an addict causes family members and friends to experience strong emotions: fear because many aspects of alcohol and drug use are terrifying, anger because the inability of the addict to be responsible for his actions, and guilt for being angry. While the addict is obsessed with getting high, those closest to him are obsessed with helping minimized the damage, which might be counterproductive (Andrew k. Littlefield, 2010).
    Do alcohol and drug addictions have relationship with crime?
    There is a clear correlation between alcohol and drug addiction and criminality. Drugs and alcohol are thought to encourage criminal behavior in several ways (Newcomb, 2001). Their use can reduce inhibitions, stimulate aggression, and interfere with critical thinking and simple skills like driving or operating machinery. Each of these factors reduced the person’s ability to earn a legal income, which may lead the addict to commit crimes in order to obtain money (Newcomb, 2001). For those using addictive drugs, the need to get money to support a drug habit may take priority over any other consideration. Sometimes poor and underprivileged drug user may also find themselves more frequently exposed to situations that encourage crime (Sadava, 1987). The same circumstances leading a person to commit crimes may also lead to drug use (Justice, 1998). The same condition limiting employment opportunity may also contribute to both drug abuse and criminal behavior. The table bellow represents a clear definition between the relationship of drug and crimes (Justice, 1998).

  • What is Cocaine

    Cocaine is a drug derived from the leaf of the Erytroxylon cocoa bush, which grows primarily in Peru and Bolivia. Cocaine also known as coke, C, snow, flake, nose candy, blow, or crack is generally sold on the street as a hydrochloride salt( a water-soluble salt). Cocaine is a fine, white crystalline powder often diluted with similar-looking substances such as talcum powder, sugar, or amphetamines. The powder can be snorted into the nostrils, also may be rubbed onto the mucous linings of the mouth, rectum, or vagina. To experience cocaine’s effects quickly, and to heighten their intensity, users sometimes dissolve it in water and injects into a vein. The drug may be smoked in a purified form through a water pipe (freebasing) or in a concentrated form (crack) shaped into pellets or rocks and placed in special smoking gear. Despite today’s abuse of the highly addictive drug, cocaine was intended for medical purposes. Pure cocaine was first extracted and identified by the German chemist Albert Niemann in the mid-19thcentury, and was introduced as a tonic/elixir in patent medicines to treat a variety of real or imagined illnesses. Later, it was used as a local anesthetic for eye, ear, and throat surgery and continues today to have limited use in surgery. Cocaine is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that heightens alertness and provides intense feelings of pleasure. Because of it’s potent euphoric and energizing effects, many people
    in the late 19th century took cocaine, even though some physicians recognized that users quickly became dependent. In the 1880s, the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud created a sensation with a series of papers praising cocaine=s potential to cure depression, alcoholism, and morphine addiction. Skepticism soon replaced this excitement, however, when documented reports of fatal cocaine poisoning, alarming mental disturbances, and cocaine addiction began to circulate. In 1902, ninety two percent of all cocaine sold in major cities in the United States was in the form of an ingredient in tonics and potions available from local pharmacies. In 1911, the Canadian government legally restricted cocaine use, and its popularity decreased. The 1920s and 1930s saw a decline in its use, especially after amphetamines became easily available. Cocaine=s popular return beginning in the late 1960s, coincided with the decreased use of amphetamines.
    Along with the feelings of pleasure comes negative effects. The effects of any drug depend on the amounts taken at one time, the user=s past drug experience, the manner in which the drug is taken, and the circumstances under which the drug is taken. Cocaine=s short-term effects appear soon after a single dose and last about twenty minutes, while the effects of crack last about twelve minutes. Taken in small amounts, cocaine usually makes the user feel confident, talkative, and mentally alert – especially to the sensations of sight, sound, and touch. It can also temporarily dispel the need for food and sleep. Surprisingly, it can make some people feel contemplative, anxious, or even panic-stricken. Some people find that the drug helps them perform simple physical and intellectual tasks more quickly; others experience just the opposite effect. Physical symptoms
    include accelerated heartbeat and breathing, higher blood pressure and body temperature, and dilated pupils. Large amounts intensify users high, but may also lead to bizarre, erratic, and violent behavior. These users may experience tremors, vertigo, muscle twitches, paranoia, and hallucinations. Chest pain, nausea, blurred vision, fever, muscle spasms, convulsions, and coma are some of the physical symptoms. Death from a cocaine overdose can occur from convulsions, heart failure, or the depression of vital brain centers controlling respiration. With repeated use over time, users experience the drug=s long-term effects. Euphoria is gradually replaced with restlessness, extreme excitability, insomnia, suspiciousness, weight loss, constipation, impotence, and difficulty in urinating. Chronic cocaine snorting often causes stuffiness, runny nose, eczema(skin disease), around the nostrils, and a perforated nasal septum. Users who inject the drug risk not only overdosing but also infections from unsterile needles and hepatitis or AIDS(acquired immune deficiency syndrome) from needles shared with others.
    Tolerance to any drug exists when higher doses are necessary to achieve the same effects once reached with lower doses. Psychological dependence exists when a drug is so central to a person=s thoughts, emotions, and activities that it becomes a craving. Cocaine can produce very powerful psychological dependence involving extremely compulsive patterns of use. Among heavy cocaine users, an intense psychological dependence can occur; they suffer severe depression if the drug is unavailable, which lifts only when they take it again. Physical dependence may also develop. When regular heavy users stop taking the drug, however,
    they experience what they call a coke crash shortly afterwards. Overall, during withdrawal, many users complain of sleep and eating disorders, depression, and anxiety, and the craving for cocaine often compels them to take it again. Treatment of the dependent cocaine user is therefore difficult, and the relapse rate is high. Not only is cocaine a dangerous addiction, but also an expensive one. Along with a cocaine addict, you could also become a thief, murderer, or homeless. Most addicts would do anything for some cocaine fix. Nevertheless, some heavy users have been able to quit on their own. The battle with cocaine is not a hopeless fight. There are plenty of programs that help cocaine addicts rehabilitate. Group therapy is a program there to get help from people who are fighting the same battle. Along with group therapy there is interpersonal therapy which was developed for the treatment of depression. Furthermore, there are Cocaine Anonymous groups, National Cocaine Hotlines,and rehabilitation centers like Addiction Canada www.addictioncanada.ca that all work to reduce the number of potential and current cocaine addicts.
    Despite, the knowledge of the drug, cocaine is still popular in society. One-tenth of the population – over twenty two million people have tried cocaine. Each day five thousand more people will experiment with it. Studies indicate that crack users cut across all racial, social, and economic boundaries. Part of the drug=s mystique was its association with celebrities in the music, sports, and show business world=s. Young single people are the most frequent users, with male users outnumbering female users two to one. The large percentage of crack users are males between twenty and thirty years old. Nine out of ten cocaine users started as teenagers. Surprisingly, the average age of starting cocaine users is fourteen years old. Although adolescents do not represent the majority of crack users, the problem is increasing among these individuals.
    Cocaine may not always affect today=s youth directly, but indirectly. Similar to alcohol, cocaine and pregnancy can be a fatal combination. Cocaine use during pregnancy affects the unborn baby as well as the carrier of the child. The unborn child has no choice but to be dependent on cocaine due the mothers mistakes. Some mothers are unaware, that their unborn child suffers the affects of cocaine during pregnancy. Exposed to the drug in the womb and born addicted to crack cocaine, this child experiences severe withdrawal symptoms. When a pregnant woman takes a hit of crack cocaine, the fetus loses sufficient blood and air and suffocates briefly. For the mother, the drugs euphoric effect lasts only about twenty minutes. For the growing fetus, the cocaine stays in its system for more than two weeks. In the womb, the child is often re-exposed because the cocaine does not pass through the placenta to the mother but remains in the amniotic fluid surrounding the baby. Crack use by pregnant mother has been associated with:
    1. Spontaneous miscarriages
    2. Reduced fetal head circumference
    3. A higher incidence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
    Conservative estimates suggests that at least eleven percent of all newborns in the United States today were exposed in the womb to one or more illicit drugs. The number is even higher in urban areas. Birth and hospitalization of a normal newborn cost approximately two thousand dollars. Birth and hospital care of a crack exposed equipment and social service evaluations, costs eleven thousand dollars. Cocaine use during pregnancies not only affects unborn children and their mothers but the American tax payers are also involved.
    One of the main reason, cocaine addicts exists is the drug dealers who sell it to them. These dealers have no remorse for selling cocaine on the streets. Contrary to media reports the majority of crack is not sold on the streets and purchases are often made in known though highly temporary sites, delivered to the users home or through a friend. As yet pushing crack is still relatively rare as the market for it is sufficiently large that the supplier does not have to use these risky strategies to sell. Crack is merchandised by drug dealers as the cheap, easy and accessible way to use cocaine. Crack’s growing availability and convenience of use makes it one of the most marketable drugs sold on the street today. Crack is sold both at known drug copping areas and at locations where there was previously little or no drug activity. Base or Crack houses(locations set up to sell or smoke crack) have sprung up in many areas. Crack is sold in small plastic vials and is in the form of small white, gray, or beige rough chunks that can be smoked in a glass pipe. Two doses of crack can be purchased for about five to ten dollars. Users prefer crack because of the lower cost. Users can spend fifty dollars to one hundred dollars for one gram of cocaine powder. When it is sold on the streets dealers usually avoid being arrested by carrying very small amounts in their mouths. The police cannot search orifices and the dealer can swallow the drug easily. In dealing there is a hierarchical structure, with the people at the low end having to carry on them the larger amounts and engage in the riskier activities. For these reasons it is usually the small time, low end dealers who get arrested, not the
    individuals who are earning a great deal of money from this trade. The community is a small part of the whole that is affected by cocaine use and sales. The cocaine industry is a thirty five billion dollars illicit industry now exceeding Columbia=s number one coffee export.
    Even though, the cocaine industry is wealthy, but is also a illegal operation. Cocaine is governed by the Narcotic Control Act. Unlawful possession is a criminal offense. Upon summary conviction for a first offense penalty is a fine of up to one thousand dollars and/or one year; for subsequent offenses two thousand dollars and/or one year; upon conviction by indictment, penalty is up to seven years imprisonment. Trafficking and possession for the purposes of trafficking are indictable offenses, punishable by up to life, but no less than seven years. No matter how you look at the effects of cocaine there is nothing positive about them. JUST SAY NO TO DRUGS.

  • Alcohol Effects

    Use of alcohol are seen in two major ways. First is the every day drinker that uses alcohol on a regular basis to function. Second is the “binge” drinker this type of drinker may be able to sustain from alcohol for a period of time but once they have a drink they usually cannot control the amount of alcohol they consume. Both can have a tremendous effect on the life of the drinker causing loss of jobs, family and friend’s as well as health problems. Alcohol has both short term and long-term effects.

    The short-term effects of alcohol. The short-term psychological effect is to suppress the central nervous system. At low alcohol levels the person may have trouble walking or talking. Higher levels may cause a person to pass out or even die. The effects of alcohol vary from one person to the next; Weight, food, heredity and drinking habits are some of the reasons why the effects of alcohol may vary.

    The short term psychological effects can include happiness, loss of inhibitions, poor judgment, reduced concentration and can even impact a persons sex life.

    Long-term psychological effects of alcohol. These effects can be much more serious. Alcoholics in this stage seem to go through four different phases.

    Pre-alcoholic symptomatic phase. This stage is where the alcoholic starts out as a social drinker. Alcohol relieves tension so the drinker starts to drink more often.

    Prodromal phase. In this stage the drinker’s thoughts tend to be mostly about alcohol. They may try to hide their drinking and try to consume larger amounts in a shorter time period. This type of drinker tends to feel guilty and they also tend to have blackouts.

    Crucial phase. In this stage of drinking once the person has their first drink they may not be able to stop until they are over intoxicated. These binges may last for days.

    The final stage is the chronic stage. This is the stage where the alcoholic is drinking on a regular basis. They may start drinking in the morning and continue to stay intoxicated all day. The results in this are often a loss of family, friends, and even their job because now the most important thing in their life is alcohol.

    Long-term physiological effects of alcohol. These effects include an increase in tolerance, physical
    Discomfort, hallucinations and anxiety. Chronic alcoholism can destroy brain cells, causes nutritional
    Problems, and all around health to deteriorate. Chronic alcoholism can result in cirrhosis of the liver, heart
    Failure, broken capillaries, and cancer of the mouth or throat. An unborn fetus can
    Develop fetal alcohol syndrome, which can lead them to be both mentally retarded and deformed.

    Although in large doses alcohol is bad studies have shown that in moderate amounts it can
    Lower the risk or heart disease.

    I have experienced the stages of alcoholism in my own life. Started out partying with friends then it
    Just goes on from there. A lot of aspects to this article are true there are physical withdrawals, but I also
    Believe like with any addiction that if you want to quit bad enough you can, all the things that you lose, and
    The effects on your health are not worth the risk of becoming an alcoholic.

  • Addiction & Denial

    Denial, the topic for this week’s discussion, is unfortunately not a river in Jordan. While not a river, it is a characteristic that at times seems to be as resistant to change as the most torrent watercourse. Denial has been described as many things in many ways by many people and still I find the Webster’s Dictionary definition of denial to be the most meaningful and accurate:
    “an assertion that an allegation is false…disbelief in the existence or reality of a thing…self-denial…[and] the reduction of anxiety by the unconscious exclusion from the mind of intolerable thoughts, feelings, or facts” (1977).

    The readings and following class discussion illuminated just how varied and vast denial can manifest itself, especially with alcoholics and addicts. The discussion concluded that denial may be noticeable in the form of 1) an individual not being able to accept what is in front of him; 2) a coping mechanism to deal with facts as presented; or 3) the inability to see consequences of one’s behavior. Also based on the class discussion, things a counselor can look for to discern if a person is in denial are 1) if they consistently miss or avoid scheduled sessions, or while in sessions they continually change the subject; 2) if clients appear to reject logic or reason; 3) clients demonstrate incongruence, that is their non-verbal expression and actions are inconsistent with what they say; and 4) clients demonstrate the various defense mechanisms associated with alcoholism, addiction, and denial.
    These defense mechanisms can be in the form of projection, (“I don’t have a problem –you have a problem.”) rationalization, (“It helps me relax/concentrate/forget” or “I’ll stop as soon as the pressure lets up”) justification, (“Everyone I know does it”) suppression or repression, (forcing down memories of using behavior and negative consequences as a result of that use and behavior) and one that sometimes gets overlooked, geographic escapes (my life is unmanageable – but it’ll get better if I move to another place.)
    The text also offered some useful information in understanding the phenomenon of denial. On page 30 of the text Assessment of Addictive Behavior, Tarter, Alterman, & Edwards (1985); Tarter & Edwards (1986); Tarter, Hegedus, Goldstein Shelly, & Alterman (1984) suggest that “…neuropsychological deficits among alcoholics, particularly deficits in accurately perceiving internal cues of physiological arousal and emotion and in appraising the significance of environmental events, may underlie what has been described as ‘alcoholic denial’ ” (cited in Donovan & Marlatt 1998). In other words people may be so impaired from the damage heavy drinking causes on the brain they may not have the capacity to comprehend beyond their “denial reality.” In addition, on page 223 of Psychotherapy in Chemical Dependence Treatment, Rugel and Barry (1990) state, “denial is a way to defend against loss of self-esteem occasioned by negative public and self-valuation.” They go on to say, “Denial, therefore, may be a necessary step in the recovery process, required in order to defend the ego.” Interestingly, Rugel and Barry found that in groups where clients felt safe and supported enough early on in the treatment process to do self-exploration, a reduction in the need for the clients to erect denial defenses resulted. However, in groups where there was a big emphasis on the venting of powerful emotions of remorse and shame, via cathartic exercises, denial and defense mechanisms were reinforced (cited in Buelow & Buelow 1998). This is important information for those of us who may be providing substance abuse counseling to know, because we may need to be more sensitive to the techniques we introduce so as not to impede the counseling process for clients but rather enhance it.
    As far as my thoughts are concerned, I agree with the class, in that, I believe denial is both a conscious and an unconscious characteristic of alcoholics and addicts. People may be consciously aware they have a problem but due to shame or guilt are unable or unwilling to admit it. While on the other hand fear may unconsciously push addicts into denial. Based on my four years of personal recovery and two years of providing substance abuse counseling, I have found that people who are afraid to face their problems often start practicing denial even before they are addicted but then as the addiction progresses, it causes its own problems. At which point the idea of facing reality can be so frightening and overwhelming people are unaware that underneath it all they have become addicts. This personal observation is congruent with Professor Charles-Heathers’ assertion that denial is most probable a cyclical dynamic whereby people may move through stages from low level denial, which may not have much in the way of consequences, to high level denial, which may affect a persons ability to function from day to day and lead to loss of relationships, children, jobs, freedom or worse…
    Lastly, there are many strategies for addressing denial. Some of the suggested strategies by the class were life stories, family groups, self-assessments exercises, significant other interventions, building and establishing rapport and trust with the client, journaling, education, and self-disclosure. My final thoughts are this; denial is a defense mechanism that enables people to survive situations and abuses that they would not be able to otherwise tolerate. It also allows clients to be where they need to be until they are ready to face what it is that was previously pushed away or avoided. Facing a problem is the first step to solving it. I personally know that addiction is difficult to overcome alone. So, as counselors we are there to help clients face their problems not with judgment but with nurturing, respect, education, support, and encouragement. I have seen first hand the phenomenon of people moving from the paralysis of denial to the miracle of recovery by the simple act of someone believing in them.


    Buelow, G. D., & Buelow, S. A. (1998). Psychotherapy in chemical dependence treatment: A practical and integrative approach. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

    Donovan, D. M., & Marlatt, G. A. (1998). Assessment of Addictive Behaviors. New Your, NY: Guilford Publications.

    Steinmetz, S. (Ed.). (1997). Webster’s college dictionary (2nd ed.).
    New York: Random House.

  • The Drug Addict

    Life is tough and some of us need something just a little more and here comes Addiction Canada. In high school all you want to do is fit in but how can you when you are an outsider. This world of drug use you did not even know about so no wonder you didn’t fit it. Once introduced everybody wants to get messed up with you cause you are really a cool person. You start making good friends and hanging out with them everyday. You begin to forget about your family and everything else all you want to do is hang out with your friends and get messed up. Life is tough as a teen and you want to be excepted. Before you know it years go by and all you do is smoke weed, everyday. Seems fun and exciting at the time but then that’s all that you do. Then you notice that all your so called friends talk and do things behind each others back but you think , no way they are doing that to me but your wrong. Weed is a gateway drug before you now your doing other drugs with other people and going into this twisted world and leaving your family and those who really care about you behind. You are barely home grades always slipping and you just don’t care. Then after a long night of partying your one friend does too many drugs. You told him all night that you thought he had enough but he didn’t care. Finally you guys get a couple hours sleep and you wake up all cracked out of your minds. And you go to wake your friend up to go home and take a shower and do it all over again but he is all blue and cold. You check for a pulse and there isn’t one you start to really lose it and don’t know what the hell to do. You call 911 and are scared out of your mind. After hearing from the Addiction Canada doctors it was apparent that he had a drug overdose. Your heart hit’s the floor and you cant believe its all real. After this life changing event you come to realize you’re a drug addict and so are all your friends all you can do it quit, leave, and never look back. It was probably one of the hardest things I have had to deal with but after losing a friend its not worth it. I started going to the gym doing other things not involving drugs. I changed my college GPA from a .61 into a 2.95 and it is still increasing . If I can do it then anyone can do it and its not worth risking your life just to get high.

  • Cocaine Addiction

    Everybody knows cocaine is bad for you. So why do so many people take it? It gets you high and this is the drug addiction in Canada. You feel good for a little while. Then you’re sad again. Teenagers have this problem a lot. Scientists have found a way to maybe prevent ‘highs’ when using cocaine. Actually, they found a way in animals, and they are hoping to use it on humans. The team showed that the epilepsy drug gamma vinyl-GABA, or GVG, blocked cocaine’s effect in the brains of primates, including the process that causes a “high” feeling in humans. Also, the rodents didn’t go back to the place they received the cocaine as much as they did without the epilepsy drug, which is important behavior when pertaining to a human being.

    Cocaine may be one of the toughest addictions to cure because it triggers a buildup of a protein that persists in the brain and stimulates genes that intensify the craving for the drug. The GVG might be able to help because it sort of stops the chemical release of the protein that builds up and causes the brain to crave the drug. Addiction is a complex process in humans because it is linked to learning and multiple chemical pathways in the brain. So, if some of these can be blocked, then there is no more addiction, and with GVG, there might not be, once it is tested on humans. Since it helped the animals, there is a good chance of it helping us.

    In the brain, chemicals called neurotransmitters constantly float between brain cells, sending messages that travel through the brain and into the body in a process similar to the game “Telephone.” (The molecules pass on the messages.) After neurotransmitter molecules complete their task of leaving their home brain cell and docking with a neighboring cell to convey the message, they usually return to their home cell or are eliminated in the space between cells, called the synapse. But nicotine, cocaine and many other addictive drugs wreak havoc with this process.

    Obviously, the chemical things involved in this have a lot to do with the brain’s most common neurotransmitter, GABA. It releases dopamine, which makes you feel good. So, if the epilepsy drug helps animals, there is a good chance that it will help humans. Addiction Canada rehabs are excellent at a solution to cocaine addiction.

  • Introduction to Alcoholism

    Alcohol can be traced back to ancient times when Egyptians used beer and wine for ritual and celebratory purposes (Hanson 1995). Osiris, the god of wine, was praised throughout the entire land of Egypt. The Egyptians believed that this important god also invented beer, a beverage that was considered a necessity of life and was brewed in the home. Both beer and wine were created for and sacrificed to the gods. Fast-forward 12,000 years and the variety of alcohol has become so numerous, people no longer need a reason to drink. However, most of the population is unaware of the chemical reaction that is occurring within their body every time they take a sip. It has always been evident that alcohol has an effect on brain function, which in-turn impairs the behavior of a person. Not only has alcohol been linked to multiple physical issues but also mental and emotional. When alcohol is consumed it can create acetaldehyde in the brain to allow a chemical reaction to take place with other elements already in the brain waiting to be activated. When acetaldehyde reacts with chemicals such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine then there is a strong chance that psychoactive alkaloids such as salsolinol will be produced (Sullivan et. al 2010). Acetaldehyde is present everywhere in the atmosphere and may be produced in the body due to the breakdown of ethanol. Acute (short-term) exposure to acetaldehyde results in disturbances such as irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Symptoms of chronic (long-term) intoxication of acetaldehyde seem to be parallel with those of alcoholism. Besides these physical effects, alcohol has been seen as playing a role in multiple sexual outcomes and processes. It not only changes a person’s sexual latency but also impairs their view on a potential mate’s physical appeal (George and Stoner 2000). Even knowing that another person has drunk can influence the way he or she is viewed. And although alcohol is commonly known to be a social lubricant, it can also severely impair judgment and cause a person to carry out an action or become interested in something they otherwise would never explore or even encounter.